|Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ge'ez ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā), is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. It is the 2nd-most populous nation in Africa, bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, and Sudan to the west. Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the second-oldest official Christian nation in the world after Armenia. It has long been an intersection between the civilizations of North Africa, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. Unique among African countries, Ethiopia was never colonised, maintaining its independence throughout the Scramble for Africa onward, except for a five-year period (1936-41) when it was under Italian occupation. There was no Italian colonization of Ethiopia during this period, however, as the Italians occupied only a few key cities and major routes. The Italian period is thus considered an "occupation" and not colonial rule. In addition, Ethiopia has long been a member of international organisations: it became a member of the League of Nations, signed the Declaration by United Nations in 1942, founded the UN headquarters in Africa, was one of the 51 original members of the United Nations, and is the headquarters for and one of the founding members of the former OAU and current AU.
Ethiopia was also historically called Abyssinia, derived from the Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "ḤBŚT," modern Habesha. In some countries, Ethiopia is still called by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g. Turkish Habesistan, meaning land of the Habesha people. The English name "Ethiopia" is thought to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived from Greek terms meaning "of burnt (αιθ-) visage (ὄψ)". However, this etymology is disputed, since the Book of Aksum, a Ge'ez chronicle first composed in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "'Ityopp'is", a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham who according to legend founded the city of Axum.